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History of Cedar
County, Iowa, 1878.

  
 

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Discovery of the Ohio.

This "Beautiful" river was discovered by Robert Cavalier de LaSalle in 1669, four years before the discovery of the Mississippi by Joliet and Marquette.

While LaSalle was at his trading post on the St. Lawrence, he found leisure to study nine Indian dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois.  He not only desired to facilitate his intercourse in trade, but he longed to travel and explore the unknown regions of the West.  An incident soon occurred which decided him to fit out an exploring expedition.

While conversing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea, but at such a distance that it required eight months to reach its mouth.  In this statement the Mississippi and its tributaries were considered as one stream.  LaSalle believing, as most of the French at that period did, that the great rivers flowing west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to embark in the enterprise of discovering a route across the continent to the commerce of China and Japan.

He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the approval of the Governor.  His eloquent appeal prevailed.  The Governor and the Intendant, Talon, issued letters patent authorizing the enterprise, but made no provision to defray the expenses.  At this juncture the seminary of St. Sulpice decided to send out missionaries in connection with the expedition, and LaSalle offering to sell his improvements at LaChine to raise money, the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two thousand eight hundred dollars were raised, with which LaSalle purchased four canoes and the necessary supplies for the outfit.

On the 6th of Suly, 1669, the party, numbering twenty-four persons, embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence;  two additional canoes carried the Indian guides.  In three days they were gliding over the bosom of Lake Ontario.  Their guides conducted them directly to the Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity of the present City of Rochester, New York.  Here they expected to procure guides to conduct them to the Ohio, but in this they were disappointed.

The Indians seemed unfriendly to the enterprise.  LaSalle suspected that the Jesuits had prejudiced their minds against his plans.  After waiting a month in the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian from the Iroquois colony at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured them that they could there find guides, and offered to conduct them thence.

On their way they passed the mouth of the Niagara River, when they heard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract.  Arriving among the Iroquois, they met with a friendly reception, and learned from a Shawanee prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks.  Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready to resume their journey;  but just as they were about to start they heard of the arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring village.  One of them proved to be Louis Joliet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West.  He had been sent by the Canadian Government to explore the copper mines on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his way back to Quebec.  He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Indians in that quarter.  This induced the priests to determine on leaving the expedition and going to Lake Superior.  LaSalle warned them that the Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet with a cold reception.  Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and after worship on the lake shore, parted from LaSalle.  On arriving at Lake Superior, they found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, Marquette and Dablon, occupying the field.

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him their patron saint;  and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal the following June without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian.

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far as the falls at Louisville.  Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669.

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anonymous paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle himself furing a subsequent visit to Paris.  In a letter written to Count Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls.  This was regarded as an indisputable fact by the French authorities, who claimed the Ohio Valley upon another ground.  When Washington was sent by the colony of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec replied:  "We claim the country on the Ohio by virtue of the discoveries of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English.  Our orders are to make prisoners of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio Valley."

English Explorations and Settlements.

When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Father of Waters and the Great Northwest, all was still wild save at the French posts already described.  In 1749, when the English first began to think seriously about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were yet under the dominion of the red men.  The English knew, however, pretty conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds.  As early as 1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had commenced movements to secure the country west of the Alleghenies to the English crown.  In Pennsylvania, Governor Keith and James Logan, secretary of the province, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the necessity of securing the Western lands.  Nothing was done, however, by that power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain to this unexplored wilderness.

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, her grants to the colonies extended "from sea to sea."  This was not all her claim.  She had purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of land.  This latter was also a strong argument.  As early as 1684, Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations.  These were the great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.  Afterward the Tuscaroras were taken into the confederacy, and it became known as the Six Nations.  They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in 1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed was drawn up and signed by the chiefs.  The validity of this claim has often been disputed, but never successfully.  In 1744, a purchase was made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the "Colony of Virginia," for which the Indians received 200 in gold and a like sum in goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be paid.  The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel William Beverly.  As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the mountains with presents to appease the savages.  Col. Lee and some Virginians accompanied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings regarding the English.  They were not satisfied with their treatment, and plainly told the Commissioners why.  The English did not desire the cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade.  In 1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant of land beyond the Alleghenies.  This was granted, and the government of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hundred thousand of which were to be located at once.  Upon the 12th of June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 acres were given to the Greenbriar Company.  All this time the French were not idle.  They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in the West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French settling upn it, but in time would come to the lower posts and so gain possession of the whole country.  Upon the 10th of May, 1774, Vaudreuil, Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the consequences that must arise from allowing the English to build trading posts in the Northwest, seized some of their frontier posts, and to further secure the claim ot the French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis Celeron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, plates of lead, on which were inscribed the claims of France.  These were heard of in 1752, and within the memory of residents now living along the "Oyo," as the beautiful river was called by the French.  One of these plates was found with the inscription partly defaced.  It bears date August 16, 1749, and a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, among whose journals it may now be found.  (Note:  The following is a translation of the inscription on the plate:  "In the year 1749, reign of Louis XV, King of France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detachment by Monsieur the Marquis of Gallisoniere, commander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, have buried this plate at the confluence of the Toradakoin, this twenty-ninth of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken of the said river, and all its tributaries;  inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by their arms and treaties;  especially by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix La Chapelle.")  These measures did not, however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and it was only a question of time when the storm would burst upon the frontier settlements.  In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio Company to examine its lands.  He went to a village of the Twigtwees, on the Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles above its mouth.  He afterward spoke of it as very populous.  From there he went down the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands.  During the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for the Greenbriar Company.  Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also sent a small party of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear.  This party, having heard of the English post on the Miami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison.  (They were probably garrisoned in a block house.)  The traders were carried away to Canada, and one account says several were burned.  This fort or post was called by the English Pickawillany.  A memorial of the king's ministers refers to it as "Pickawillanes, in the center of the territory between the Ohio and the Wabash.  The name is probably some variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written by Rev. David Jones Pickaweke."

This was the first blood shed between the French and English, and occurred near the present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at a point about forty-seven miles north of Dayton.  Each nation became now more interested in the progress of events in the Northwest.  The English determined to purchase from the Indians a title to the lands they wished to occupy, and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washington at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty of Lancaster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties.  On the 9th of June, these Commissioners met the red men at Logstown, a little village on the north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the site of Pittsburgh.  Here had been a trading point for many years, but it was abandoned by the Indians in 1750.  At first the Indians declined to recognize the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour, the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in their favor.  This he did, and upon the 13th of June they all united in signing a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should not be disturbed by them.  These were the means used to obtain the first treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley.

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trying to out-manoeuvre each other, and were professing to be at peace.  The English generally outwitted the Indians, and failed in many instances to fulfill their contracts.  They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further increased the feeling by failing to provide them with arms and ammunition.  Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1758:  "The Indians on the Ohio left you because of your own fault.  When we heard the French were coming, we asked you for help and arms, but we did not get them.  The French came, they treated us kindly, and gained our affections.  The Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when we wanted help, forsook us."

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannon and military stores to be in readiness for the expected blow.  The English made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until the Summer could the Indiana be gathered together to discuss the plans of the French.  They had sent messages to the French, warning them away;  but they replied that they intended to complete the chain of forts already begun, and would not abandon the field.

Soon after this, no satisfaction being obtained from the Ohio regarding the positions and purposes of the French, Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia determined to send to them another messenger and learn from them, if possible, their intentions.  For this purpose he selected a young man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank of major, and who was thoroughly posted regarding frontier life.  This personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, who then held considerable interest in Western lands.  He was at this time just twenty-two years of age.  Taking Gist as his guide, the two, accompanied by four servitors, set out on their perilous march.  They left Will's Creek on the 10th of November, 1758, and on the 22d reached the Monongahela, about ten miles above the fork.  From there they went to Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of the Six Nations.  From them he learned the condition of the French, and also heard of their determination not to come down the river till the following Spring.  The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral.  Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on to Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek.  Here the French had a fort, called Fort Machault.  Through the rum and flattery of the French, he nearly lost all his Indian followers.  Finding nothing of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek.  Here he delivered Governor Dinwiddie's letter, received his answer, took his observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians who still remained true to him, notwithstanding the endeavors of the French to retain them.  Their homeward journey was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, yet they reached home in safety on the 6th of January, 1754.

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by Washington to Governor Dinwiddie, it was learned that the French would not give up without a struggle.  Active preparations were at once made in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, while the French finished the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications, and gathered their forces to be in readiness.

The Old Dominion was all alive.  Virginia was the center of great activities;  volunteers were called for, and from all the neighboring colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac men were enlisting under the Governor's proclamation --- which promised two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio.  Along this river they were gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent had come for assistance for his little band of forty-one men, who were working away in hunger and want, to fortify that point at the fork of the Ohio, to which both parties were looking with deep interest.

"The first birds of Spring filled the air with their song; the swift river rolled by the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting snows of Spring and the April showers.  The leaves were appearing;  a few Indian scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at hand;  and all was so quiet, that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, who had been left by Trent in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten miles up the Monongahela.  But, though all was so quiet in that wilderness, keen eyes had seen the low intrenchment rising at the fork, and swift feet had borne the news of it up the river;  and upon the morning of the 17th of April, Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw upon the Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink --- sixty batteaux and three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and stores.  *  *  *  That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecoeur, and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men and tools, marched up the Monongahela."

The French and Indian war had begun.  The treaty of Aix la Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and English possessions unsettled, and the events already narrated show the French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi and its tributaries; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from Newfoundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific.  The first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted disastrously to them.  The French and Indians immediately completed the fortifications begun at the Fork, which they had so easily captured, and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne.  Washington was at Will's Creek when the news of the capture of the fort arrived.  He at once departed to recapture it.  On his way he entrenched himself at a place called the "Meadows," where he erected a fort called by him Fort Necessity.  From there he surprised and captured a force of French and Indians marching against him, but was soon after attacked in his fort by a much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the morning of July 4th.  He was allowed to return to Virginia.

The English Government immediately planned four campaigns;  one against Fort DuQuesne;  one against Nova Scotia;  one against Fort Niagara, and one against Crown Point.  These occurred during 1755-6, and were not successful in driving the French from their possessions.  The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered such an inglorious defeat.  This occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle of Monongahela, or "Braddock's Defeat."  The was continued with various vicissitudes through the years 1756-7; when, at the commencement of 1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then Secretary of State, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to carry on the war.  Three expeditions were planned for this year:  one, under General Amherst, against Louisburg;  another, under Abercrombie, against Fort Ticonderoga; and a third, under General Forbes, against Fort DuQuesne.  On the 26th of July, Louisburg surrendered after a desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the Canadian possessions fell into the hands of the British.  Abercrombie captured Fort Frontenac, and when the expedition against Fort DuQuesne, of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it was found in flames and deserted.  The English at once took possession, rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the name to Fort Pitt.

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of Canada.  General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec;  Amherst was to reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to capture Niagara.  This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant Prideaux lost his life in the attempt.  Amherst captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point without a blow;  and Wolfe, after making the memorable ascent to the Plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated Montcalm, and on the 18th, the city capitulated.  In this engagement Montcolm and Wolfe both lost their lives.  De Levi, Montcalm's successor, marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of defeating the English, and there, on the 28th of the following April, was fought one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War.  It resulted in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the City of Montreal.  The Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Canada was surrendered to the English.  This practically concluded the war, but it was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England were signed.  This was done on the 10th of February of that year, and under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England.  At the same time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain.

On the 13th of September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers was sent from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post in the territory.  He arrived there on the 19th of November, and summoned the place to surrender.  At first the commander of the post, Beletre refused, but on the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the French arms, surrendered.  Rogers remained there until December 23d under the personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to whom, no doubt, he owed his safety.  Pontiac had come here to inquire the purposes of the English in taking possession of the country.  He was assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not desire their country.  This answer conciliated the savages, and did much to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while on their journey home.

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one month on the way.  His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence across the present State of Ohio directly to the fort.  This was the common trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of the Ohio.  It went from Fort Sandusky, where Sandusky City now is, crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to "Mohickon John's Town" on Mohickon Creek, the northern branch of White Woman's River, and thence crossed Beaver's Town, a Delaware town on what is now Sandy Creek.  At Beaver's Town were probably one hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of cleared land.  From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork.

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under English rule.  New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large trade was speedily manifested.  Had the British carried out their promises with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpetrated, and the country would have been spared their recital.

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these atrocities.  We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading events in his life.  The earliest authentic information regarding this noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader named Alexander Henry, who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as far as Missillimacnac.  Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, but a bitter foe of the English, whom he considered as encroaching on his hunting grounds.  Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian to insure safety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached him and the English for their attempted subjugation of the West.  He declared that no treaty had been made with them;  no presents sent them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation.  He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawattamies.

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carolina, were united in this feeling, and at the time of the treaty of Paris, ratified February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly upon the frontier British posts, and with one blow strike every man dead.  Pontiac was the marked leader in all this, and was the commander of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares and Mingoes, who had, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unite in this enterprise.

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 1768.  Nine British post fell, and the Indians drank, "scooped up in the hollow of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton.

Pontiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit.  Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing the plot the evening previous to his arrival.  Everything was carried out, however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indian chiefs, suddenly drew aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed musket.  Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled.  He saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared.  He endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions; but the guilt was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a severe reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post.

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort, and until the treat of peace between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August, 1764, continued to harass and besiege the fortress.  He organized a regular commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark, which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed.  At the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went further south, living many years among the Illinois.

He had given up all hope of saving his county and race.  After a time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis in a war with the whites.  His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom afterwards killed him.  His death was, however, avenged by the northern Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed.

Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly have been carried out.

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alexander Henry went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and were doing nothing to conciliate the natives.  Here he met the chief, Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in s speech the idea that their French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said:  "Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not yet conquered us!  We are not your slaves!  These lakes, these woods, these mountains, were left us by our ancestors.  They are our inheritance, and we will part with them to none.  Your nation supposes that we, like the white people, can not live without bread and pork and beef.  But you ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided food for us upon these broad lakes and in these mountains."

He then spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, no presents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war.  Such were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after the English took possession of their country.  These feelings were no doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the French arms might prevail.  The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments.

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to prevent it falling into the hands of the English, who were becoming masters of the entire West.  The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fontainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question.  Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States; and twenty years still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to France, and by France sold to the United States.

In the half century, from the building of the Fort of Crevecoeur by LaSalle, in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French settlements had been made in that quarter.  These have already been noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on the American Bottom, a large tract of rich alluvial soil in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St. Louis.

By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including all these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England; but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 1765, when Captain Stirling,in the name of the Majesty of England, established himself at Fort Chartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Catholics who worshipped here, and a right to leave the country with their effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen.  It was shortly after the occupancy of the West by the British that the war with Pontiac opened.  It is already noticed in the sketch of that chieftain.  By it many a Briton lost his life, and many a frontier settlement in its infancy ceased to exist.  This was not ended until the year 1764, when, failing to capture Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confederacy became disheartened, and, receiving no aid from the French, Pontiac abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom he afterward lost his life.

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation.  During the year 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Monongahela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha.  This was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washington was a party.  The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford and others, on the 20th of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pittsburgh to the mouth of the Kanawha;  ascended that stream about fourteen miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort.

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clustered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders.  This same year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages.  He found there about sixty-five resident families, and at Cahokia only forty-five dwellings.  At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and at Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong.  For a year or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still maintained some feelings of hatred to the English.  The trade from the posts was quite good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of port and flour found their way to the New Orleans market.  At this time the policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension of the colonies west.  In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean.  At the instance of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement without the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy reach of Great Britain.

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 1769:  "In the course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for themselves, and when all connection upheld by commerce with the mother country ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow."

In accordance with this policy, Gov. Gage issued a proclamation in 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their settlements and join some of the Eastern English colonies.  To this they strenuously objected, giving good reasons therefor, and were allowed to remain.  The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French population.  In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which was granted, and the Parliament passed an act on June 2, 1774, extending the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present, States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan.

In consequence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Government toward the French settlers in the West, they were disposed to favor that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies;  but the early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side of the war for independence.

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration to the Western lands.  He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the pretense that the fort was under the government of that commonwealth.  One of thes justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the Ohio Valley, gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it Fort Dunmore.  This and other parties were formed to select sites for settlements, and often came in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed portions of the valley, and several battles followed.  These ended in the famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and driven across the Ohio.

During the years 1775 and 1776, by the operations of land companies and the perseverance of individuals, several settlements were firmly established between the Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and western land speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash.  At a council held in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of English traders, calling themselves the "Illinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on the east side of the Mississippi River south of the Illinois.  In 1775, a merchant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincennes as the agent of the association called the "Wabash Land Company."  On the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 37,497,600 acres of land.  This deed was signed by the grantors, attested by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia.  This and other land companies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West;  but all were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution.  On the 20th of April, 1780, the two companies named consolidated under the name of the "United Illinois and Wabash Land Company."  They afterward made strenuous efforts to have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all signally failed.

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky was an unorganized country, though there were several settlements within her borders.

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated that at that time "Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 white and black inhabitants---the whites being a little the more numerous.  Cahokia contains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and 80 negroes.  There were east of the Mississippi River, about the 1771 "---when these observations were made --- "300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 negroes."

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a report made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778.  From it the following extract is made:

"Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which appears to have contained nearly eighty families from the beginning of the late revolution.  There are twelve families in a small village at la Prairie du Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village.  There are also four or five families at Fort Crartres and St. Philips, which is five miles further up the river."

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time contained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one hundred and fifty negroes.  It must be remembered that all the country west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained so until ceded again to Spain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the country including New Orleans to the United States.  At Detroit there were, according to Capt. Carver, who was in the Northwest from 1766 to 1768, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled for more than twenty miles, although poorly cultivated---the people being engaged in the Indian trade.  This old town has a history, which we will here relate.

It is the oldest town in the Northwest, having been founded by Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701.  It was laid out in the form of an oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width.  As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent resident of the place, in 1778, it comprised within its limits that space between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block) and Capt. Perkins' house (near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, and was bordered in front by the Detroit River.  It was surrounded by oak and cedar pickets, about fifteen feet long, set in the ground, and had four gates --- east, west, north and south.  Over the first three of these gates were block houses provided with four guns apiece, each a six-pounder.  Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and in a parallel direction with the block houses.  There were four streets running east and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and the rest fifteen feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from ten to fifteen feet in width.

At the date spoken of by Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the present northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street.  The citadel was enclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two stories high, sufficient to contain ten officers, and also barracks sufficient to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick.  The citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house.  The old twon of Detroit, in 1778, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, with a few a story and a half in height.  They were all of logs, some hewn and some round.  There was one building of splendid appearance, called the "King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east gate.  It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned by the British.  There were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and the other near the Government House.  Each of the guards consisted of twenty-four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning between nine and ten o'clock.  Each furnished four sentinels, who were relieved every two hours.  There was also an officer of the day, who performed strict duty.  Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset; even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all the keys were delivered into the hands of the commanding officer.  They were opened in the morning at sunrise.  No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter town with any weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife.  It was a standing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were restored to them on their return.  No more than twenty-five Indians were allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only at the east and west gates.  At sundown the drums beat, and all the Indians were required to leave town instantly.  There was a council house near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians.  The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two hundred males and one hundred females.  This town was destroyed by fire, all except one dwelling, in 1805.  After which the present "new" town was laid out.

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of importance in the West.  Kentucky was formed as a component part of Virginia, and the sturdy pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, and recognizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the trade in this part of the New World, held steadily to their purposes, and those within the commonwealth of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Richard Gallaway, burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state.  Early in September of that year (1777) the first court was held in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, who had arrived in August, was made the commander of a militia organization which had been commenced the March previous.  Thus the tree of loyalty was growing.  The chief spirit in this far-out colony, who had represented her the year previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move unequaled in its boldness.  He had been watching the movements of the British throughout the Northwest, and understood their whole plan.  He saw it through their possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British intended to penetrate the country from the north and south, and annihilate the frontier fortresses.  This moving, energetic man was Colonel, afterwards General, George Rogers Clark.  He knew the Indians were not unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives might be easily awed into neutrality;  and by spies sent for the purpose, he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements might easily succeed.  Having convinced himself of the certainty of the project, he repaired to the Capital of Virginia, which place he reached on November 5th.  While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th, Burgoyne had been defeated, and the spirits of the colonists greatly encouraged thereby.  Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at once entered heartily into Clark's plans.  The same plan had before been agitated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the scene of action to be able to guide them.

Clark, having satisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility of his plan, received, on the 2d of January, two sets of instructions --- one secret, the other open --- the latter authorized him to proceed to enlist seven companies to go to Kentucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three months from their arrival in the West.  The secret order authorized him to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the country.

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew all were needed in the colonies in the conflict there.  He sent Col. W. B. Smith to Holston for the same purpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required number of men.  The settlers in these parts were afraid to leave their own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to join the proposed expedition.  With three companies and several private volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana.  Remains of this fortification may yet be found.  At this place he appointed Col Bowman to meet him with such recruits as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and as many as could be spared from the station.  Here he announced to the men their real destination.  Having completed his arrangements, and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the island, and on the 24th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with his chosen band, fell down the river.  His plan was to go by water as far as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia.  Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to Cahokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit.  Should he fail, he intended to march directly to the Mississippi River and cross it into the Spanish country.  Before his start he received two good items of information:  one that the alliance had been formed between France and the United States;  and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to believe by the British that the "Long Knives" or Virginians, were the most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped a foe.  With this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from gratitude would become friendly if treated with unexpected leniency.

The march to Kaskaskia was

 

 

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